Geothermal energy today knows that is the heat energy from the earth. Volcanoes, geysers, hot springs and areas of high tectonic activity are suitable for this type of energy to extract water, steam and hot rocks that compose them.
The tectonic activity of volcanoes and geysers moves and releases large amounts of energy, which is extracted as steam or hot water, and drives a turbine that generates electricity.
There are two types of deposits, the hydrothermal water is extracted at high pressure that is near a heat source, and the hot rock systems, which is a hole located between 500 and 2,000 meters deep, with a roof made by impermeable rocks, a water tank and fractured rocks that allow fluid flow and, therefore, the transfer of heat from the heat source to the surface. In this case, it pierces the ground to reach the source of heat, cold water is injected and used it once heated.
Aquifer fluids are less elevated temperatures, normally between 70 and 150 º C. Therefore, the steam-electricity conversion takes place with reduced performance: small power plants can exploit these resources..
Low temperature geothermal energy
Temperatures between 20 and 60 ° C, which is the typical temperature of hot spring baths. This energy is used for domestic, urban or agricultural. In the world there are several remarkable experiences in this regard in Italy, New Zealand and Canada, places where geothermal energy supports the traditional use. In the Philippines, the geothermal system has a power capacity of 2,000 megawatts.
Apart from power generation, water used in geothermal plants could also be used in industrial processes, in some treatments textile or food industry, and even take advantage of the warm water to take a spa without the need for fuel or electricity to heat boilers.
Advantages of geothermal energy
Its advantages are that his generation is clean, so its use reduces emissions that foul the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. In addition, geothermal energy provides a constant flow of energy production throughout the year because not dependent on seasonal variations such as rain, river flows, wind, sun, etc, such as wind power or hydroelectric power. While the process of obtaining waste water show some sulfur, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, they can be cleaned before reaching the atmosphere.
Thus, the air around geothermal power plants is free of smoke and pollution: Some stations are located in the middle of grain farms, forests and share land with cattle and local wildlife. Finally, the site of a geothermal plant is efficient, because the land area required for geothermal power plants to generate a megawatt of power is less than that required the deployment of other power stations.