Electrical energy production is one of the inescapable needs of every developed country and one of the most polluting. The biggest problem is that electricity cannot be stored, and therefore must produce at the same time it is consumed.
Although there are other ways of producing electricity in industrial production is based on a single technology: can we turn a turbine connected to a generator. But to move the turbine requires a primary energy source. There are two basic ways to produce electricity, hydro power and thermal power.
Hydroelectric production consists of passing large amounts of water at high pressure through a turbine. Is a technology that requires a major intervention in space, because you need large quantities of water dam and have significant slopes? Has the advantage that it is a renewable primary energy and produces no emissions into the atmosphere. However, the precise conditions are not everywhere, so the total production depends on terrain and rainfall conditions. In addition, his great contribution is the impound of water produces significant changes in the environment, and adjusts the next ecosystem. Technological advances in improving the efficiency of the turbines, allowing the creation of micro, which requires much less infrastructure. Currently a small hydroelectric plant does not need more infrastructure than the old water mills. Thus, the landscape of the riverbanks, villages and cities, is filled with this mini.
Thermoelectric production involves passing hot air under pressure through a turbine. The hot air is obtained by boiling water and this water there are two technologies the burning and nuclear fission. The central hot water is called burning power plants. Can use four types of fuel bastard, oil, gas or befoul.
1. – The burning of coal is expensive, efficient and highly polluting. In addition to the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere other very harmful compounds such as sulfur. Is a non-renewable fossil resource.
2. – The burning of oil is expensive, very effective and very clean. Generates a lot of CO2 that is released into the atmosphere. The oil that is burned in power needs to be refined, so that there is an intermediate industrial process also consumes energy and produces pollution. Is a non-renewable fossil resource.
3. – The burning of gas is cheaper, efficient and low pollution. Of all the fuels that less CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere, and it is used directly, without refineries. Is a non-renewable fossil resource.
4. – The burning of befoul is expensive, moderately effective and clean. All befouls are considered biological products that can burn wood, shrubs, oils, alcohols, crop residues, etc. The burning of these products produce a lot of CO2 but previously have absorbed the plants and go back to them if he recovers the resource, so the balance is maintained. It is a renewable resource, but many of them need to be treated previously by an industrial process.
The production of electricity through nuclear fusion is to heat the water through a radioactive agent in its decomposition generates heat. The radioactive energy is very dangerous, so this method requires large average safety. The fuel is not exhausted at all, so that its useful life ends before it ceases to be radioactive. Are generated, and waste, very dangerous and very difficult to treat. Has the advantage that the process is cheap, effective and generates no emissions into the atmosphere.